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Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Tag: Osmosis

Bullous pemphigoid – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Bullous pemphigoid – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune skin disease that causes the skin to form bullae or blisters. Now, the skin is divided into three layers–the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis. The epidermis forms the thin outermost layer of skin. Underneath, is the thicker dermis layer, and finally, there’s the hypodermis that anchors the skin to the underlying […]

Schizophrenia – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

Schizophrenia – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

Schizo means split, and phrenia, in this case refers to the mind. Even though schizophrenia can be interpreted to mean “splitting of the mind”, it does not refer to a split personality, like some media sources might portray, but rather schizophrenia describes a scattered or fragmented pattern of thinking. Schizophrenia’s actually a syndrome, meaning there’re […]

Alcoholism – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Alcoholism – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Alcohol is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances in the world, and has been a part of different cultures for hundreds of years. Drinking alcohol can have serious harmful consequences, it’s been linked to various cancers, gastrointestinal diseases, and metabolic problems. Over time, regular use of alcohol can lead to alcohol dependence and […]

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – causes, symptoms, treatment & pathology

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – causes, symptoms, treatment & pathology

Posttraumatic stress disorder, also called PTSD, happens when some memory of a past traumatic event—like war or sexual assault—causes recurrent mental and physical distress. Now the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th edition or the DSM 5 categorizes PTSD as a “trauma-and-stressor-related-disorder” that happens when the symptoms of an acute stress response persist for over a […]

Peptic ulcer disease – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Peptic ulcer disease – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! Peptic refers to the stomach, and an ulcer is a sore or break in a membrane, so peptic ulcer […]

Thyroid cancer – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Thyroid cancer – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland in the neck that produces thyroid hormones. If the cells of the thyroid gland start to divide uncontrollably, then that’s considered a thyroid cancer. Normally, the hypothalamus, which is located at the base of the brain, secretes thyrotropin-releasing hormone, or ΤRH, into the hypophyseal portal system – which […]

Tobacco Dependence – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

There are over a billion people who smoke tobacco around the world, which makes it one of the most popular psychoactive substances used in society. The majority of tobacco users smoke cigarettes, but some smoke cigars or pipes, chew tobacco or practice snuffing which is where ground up tobacco leaves are pushed up the nose. […]

Short bowel syndrome – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Short bowel syndrome – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

In short bowel syndrome, bowel is another word for the intestines. It’s a condition that occurs when either the small intestine and/or the large intestine become physically shorter when a portion is removed by surgery, or functionally shorter, when a portion is damaged in a way that makes it nonfunctional. This can lead to poor […]

Syphilis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Syphilis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! Treponema pallidum can be considered a gram-negative bacterium although its cell envelope differs from other gram-negative bacteria. T. pallidum […]